Skirmishes at Hamburg Landing and Jordan’s Store.


Guerilla depredations at Winchester.


Pres. Johnson issues his Amnesty Proclamation; Johnson’s Reconstruction strategy disenfranchises large land-owners (anyone with taxable property over $20,000) and former Confederate military leaders until their individual petitions for amnesty are approved; the federal government also now requires all states to ratify the 13th Amendment; only 10% of the voting population of any Southern state must take a loyalty oath in order for the state to be readmitted to the Union [http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/reconstruction/states/sf_timeline.html]

Johnson also intends that each state convention declare secession null and void and repudiate the debt each Confederate state has acquired during the war. Unfortunately, the state conventions and leadership will openly defy or circumvent him, thus cutting off their best ally in Washington, since Johnson stands between the ex-Confederate states and the congressional Republicans. As a Democrat in a Republican administration that has no respect for him, he is ineffectual against the political realities of 1865-66, even though he has proved himself an anti-secessionist and a convert to the cause of emancipation in Tennessee. [Hunt]