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Infantry at Camp Trousdale.-Colonel Fulton’s regiment, 889 men, percus- sion muskets; Colonel Palmer’s regiment, 883 men, flint-lock muskets; Colo- nel Savage’s regiment, 952 men, flint-lock muskets; Colonel Newman’s regiment, 914 men, flint-lock muskets; Colonel Battle’s regiment, 880 men, flint-lock muskets.

Infantry at Camp Cheatham.-Colonel Rains’ regiment, 880 men, 710 flint- locks, 175 minie rifles; Colonel Brown’s regiment, 885 men, percussion mus- kets. Considerable sickness in last named regiment, mostly measles; it might well take place of Colonel Maney’s regiment in East Tennessee, although not now in good condition for active, efficient services.

At Fort Henry.-Colonel Heiman’s regiment, 720 men, flint-lock muskets. Erecting fortifications at mouth of Big Sandy.

Cavalry at Camp Cheatham.-One company, Captain Woodward, fully armed.

Camp Jackson. Battalion, five companies, Lieutenant-Colonel McNairy, fully armed.

Camp Lee.-Battalion, five companies, fully armed. Our cavalry is armed with sabers, Colt navy pistols, and double-barrel shotguns, English twist.


Infantry.-Col. George Maney, 944 men, rifle muskets; Colonel Hatton, 856 men, rifles; Colonel Forbes, 860 men, percussion muskets; Colonel Cumming, 877 men, flint-lock muskets. Field officers not chosen; ten companies strong.

Cavalry.-Eight companies, about 653 men.

Artillery.-Captain Rutledge’s company, 110 men, four 6-pounders, two howit- zers.


Infantry at Union City.-Colonel Travis’ regiment, 860 men, flint-lock muskets; Colonel Stephens’ regiment, 851 men, flint-lock muskets; Colonel Douglass’ regiment, 838 men, flint-lock muskets; Colonel Russel’s regiment, 737 men, flint-lock muskets; Colonel Pickett’s regiment, 744 men, flint-lock muskets.

At Fort Wright.-Colonel Smith’s Regiment, 802 men, percussion muskets; Colonel Walker’s regiment, 541 men, flint-lock muskets.

Cavalry.-Five hundred and fourteen men, flint-lock muskets.

Artillery.-Colonel McCown, 140 men, flint lock muskets; Captain Polk, 67 men, flint-lock muskets; sappers and miners, Captain Pickett, 44 men, flint- lock muskets; riflemen, 493, flint-lock muskets.

The governor called for 2,000 riflemen, each man to bring his gun, to be taken by the State at valuation and converted into minie rifles, shooting sixty balls to pound. In response to this call ten companies are in camp at Murfreesborough, Middle Tennessee, and their guns are being converted into minie rifle[s] at the rate of 300 per week. Other companies more than sufficient to fill the call have tendered themselves and are marching or preparing to march into encampment. It is believed that from 4,000 to 5,000 men armed in this way can be raised in the State as twelve-months’ volunteers.

Total infantry, about 19,400; total cavalry, 2,079; total artillery, 558; sappers and miners, 44.

The State is making good sabers at the rate of thirty per day, casting cannon, making powder, and will soon be doing so on a considerable scale, as well as making guns in considerable numbers of superior quality; making caps in large quantities.

OR, Ser 1, 52 pt. II, pp. 122-123.

Summer 1861

I was too young at the beginning of the war, to realize the danger and trouble that threatened our country, but the memory of my mother’s tear-strained [sp.?] face, and the anxious, fearful look that shone on my father’s brow, will never be erased from my memory. [Hawkins memoir, p. 3]


Skirmish at Grand Junction.


Skirmish at Clifton.

. . . It must pass into history that the Southern People withdrew themselves from this Union unwilling longer to live with a people continually agitating & harping on the sin of slavery. . . Abe Lincoln declaring. . . “A House divided against itself cannot stand, that the Union could not continue half slave, half free” . . . In less than 3 months from the time he took his seat he userped pow- ers no former President dared exercise. Let History give impartial record of the Revolution & the South must stand justified before the world.

Robert H. Cartmell Diary


The Memphis Avalanche reports,

“We are gratified to learn that Gen. Pillow will in a few days lead a brigade of Tennesseeans [sic] into some one of the fields of active service …. The known bravery and prowess of this distinguished Tennessee General … give us the assurance that wherever his brigade shall be brought into action, feats of valor will be performed, and services rendered to our cause, which will shed imperishable glory alike on the chivalry of Tennessee and on the Southern arms.”


Affair at Denmark, near Hatchie Bottom.


Skirmish near Fort Donelson.

Lucy French describes the pillaging at her Grundy County residence:

“[The Union soldiers] amused themselves by pulling down the chandeliers in the dining room, throwing ink bottles against the wall in the office—setting up bottles of wine upon the long Piazza and rolling nine-pin balls at them—using bottles for pins, (the Piazza floor was crimsoned with claret,) cutting the green cloth from the elegant billiard tables, one of which they broke to pieces, and divers other capers of like caliber such as distinguish Yankees wherever they may go.”


We are now on the Virginia and Tennessee [state] line waiting for cars to carry us to Linchburg, Virginia. We have got along very well this far and I hope that we will continue to do so.

Frederick Bradford Papers, TSLA


Skirmish near Humboldt.


General Smith starts another raid into Mississippi to occupy Forrest and link up with Sherman. Skirmish at Long’s Mills near Mulberry Gap.

Bristol, Sullivan County, Tennessee

July 27th, 1861.

Dear Wife and Children-

I again embrace the pleasure of writing to you & as Ink is scares amongst us, you will pardon me for making this impression with pencil.

I can inform you, that I am in excellent health, as well as the other boys from your neighborhood.

We left Camp Trousdale on Sunday the 21st. Inst. and arrived her on Thursday the 25, making 4 days and nights travel by Railroad, passing through Nash- ville, Chattanooga, Knoxville, Greenville, Jonesboro, and other places of minor importance.

Crossing the Tennessee and other smaller Rivers on Bridges, passing the Cum- berland Mountains through a gap and tunnel and running under the Frowning brow of the Iron Mountains hundreds of Miles amid the most delightful and Majestic like Cenery, the Eye of Man ever beheld, in spring the beholder with a deep reverence for the Infinite wisdom of him that made us and everything. Could it have been that our thoughts had not occasionally strayed from the cen- ery around us and found a resting place, The Hearth at Home, where our wives and Children, with their sweet and lovely Faces, and the many items of Interest that bound us to them.

Had it not been for a thought of the Blood, Death, and carnage before us, of which I will write on another page, the trip would have been delightful.

No accident of a serious nature occurred until we were leaving Knoxville, when one of our Company, a son of Joseph Law, by the name of Don. F. in attempting to jump the Train, fell under the Train, cutting his leg smooth into, just below the left knee. We carried him into the warehouse where the Seargant cut it off again just above the knee. I carried his foot and leg in my hand from the Railroad to the Warehouse with a shoe and a sock and a part of the Breeches leg on it-We left him there and his brother to wait on him, but learned this Morning that he has since died.

We are within a half mile of the Virginia line, connecting with Washington County sick, in that State, where the State line crosses the Railroad-There is two Flagpoles, one in Virginia, and one on the Tennessee line, and since the decision of Tennessee the two Flags have been tied together.

While I am writing, Colonel Newman’s Regiment, among which is the Granville Company, has arrived here from old Camp Trousdale, and while they March through our Camps with Marshal Music, [they] had a Warlike appear- ance. I stopped to shake hands and to help the other boys to Holow. They were mighty glad to see us again.

Yesterday we received order to move to Lynchburg, Virginia, and as there was a scarcity of Cars there was only Seven Companies that got off, and we, with two other Companies was left-after they got up 15 Miles into Virginia, They got a Telgraph dispatch to come back, and as they are just getting into Camps again I must stop again, to tell the Howdy Do -We were as glad to see them as if they had been gone a week.

Last Night Five of our Boys caught up with us, Bill among them-They looked like they could stand the Fight first rate.

As I promised to write more about the Big Fight Manassas I will now give you all the news as we have it. I have just been down to Town (Woodrow, Virginia), and red the Richmond Examiner, and give it to you. The Southerners had 30,000 men Commanded by Beauregard, Davis and Johnston. The Yankees had 65,000 men Commanded by Scott, McDowell and Patterson. Fight com- menced at 8 O’clock-Morning (Sunday) about the hour we left Camp Trousdale and lasted all day. The Southerners lost 500 killed and 1,500 wounded-Then the Northern Men lost 21,000 killed and lost 1,000 prisoners-Our side took 63 Cannons 1,000 Stands of Arms, Horses and provisions and etc. worth a Million of Dollars -Enough to Furnish the Southern Army for 12 Months. From the General detail of the battle it was the greatest Battle fought since the Memera- ble Battle of Waterloo-If Jeff Davis had of had Ten Thousand Men more, who was Fresh and not exhausted, he says he could have taken Washington City in 10 Hours after the battle-Our side run them within a few mile of the Potomac River-Got old Scott’s Carriage, and his walking stick and he run 40 miles, got 2 members of the Yanks Congressmen as prisoners, and in fact, whipped them shamefully—For full particulars I refer you to the News Paper.

I do not know where we will go from here. It is rumored that we will go to the Cumberland Gap, some say to Missouri. Governor Jackson of Missouri was here Yesterday in Company with Senator Atchinson-They both spoke-Jackson says that he can whip out the Yankees in Missouri if he had Guns-He has gone to Richmond to see Davis. The impression here is that he has gone there to get some of the Guns we got from the Yankees.

I cannot say now, my Dear Family, when I will see you again, if ever, but should it be the will of God to cut me off from you, rest assured that you shall never be disgraced by any Conduct on my part in this War, for you and my Country; I am willing to do Battle, and if Fate be against me, let it be so. Be curageous and let not private feelings have sway with you, for I believe it is for the Best, and but performing the Providence of God that this War is upon us, in other words, it is a Righteous War.

Take good care of your health, our sweet little Children raise them up as though they should go, and although the example heretofore set by me to them has not been of that Moral Character they should have been, Yet I trust that their superior intelligence will enable them to observe and avoid my errors.

Since writing the above, we have orders to leave immediately for Richmond, and Boys are bundeling up to start.

You need not write me until I write again. Give my love to your Mother, and all the Black Folks, and to your Friends.

Should Faith preserve me, I will see you in May next, if not sooner. May Heaven will it so.

Farewell, R. J. C. Gailbreath

W. P. A. Civil War Records, Vol. 3, pp. 64-65.


Affair at Lower Post Ferry or Toone’s Station.


Letter from 51st Illinois soldier, detailing campaign in the Cumberland Mountains

General Order No. 29.

Headquarters Army of Tennessee, Memphis, July 24, 1861.

The use of tobacco having become so fixed a habit with a very large proportion of our troops that the deprivation of it is to them a very severe inconvenience, and it being impossible for them to procure it at many of the encampments, the Major-General commanding, after consultation with and with the approval of his excellency, the Governor of the State, directs the various Commissary Staffs throughout the State to purchase by wholesale, from time to time, such amounts of good tobacco as may be necessary, and resell it to the soldiers of the Army of Tennessee at the cost price.

By command of Major-General, Gideon J. Pillow, Commanding the Army of Tennessee.

Gus. A. Henry, Jr., Ass’t Adjutant-General. Memphis Daily Appeal, July 26, 1861.

Use the TN Civil War GIS Map with this site.



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