Skirmish near Kimbrough’s Mill, Mill Creek.
Morgan attacks Federals at Hartsville, takes prisoners.
Work on Fort Negley, the largest Union fort west of Washington, D.C., is completed. The Fort is constructed over a three-month period by Union soldiers and hundreds of black workers – free and slave – who have been conscripted into service [http://www.bonps.org/neg.htm] in what is probably the first large-scale use of contraband labor in Tennessee during the war. Most are never paid; with little food, shelter, or appropriate clothing, many of these workers will die. The construction of Fort Negley becomes a model for future projects as Union troops, lacking labor, impress black men into service and work them mercilessly. [Hunt]
“The bareness to which we are reduced [would] have seemed to me two years ago as incredible. We live on wheat, coffee, pork or goat meat, bread (both corn and wheat,) and we have a few potatoes and turnips, and one cow. . . . Butter is 1.00 per lb. and eggs 1.50 per dozen. No sugar, no molasses, a little dried fruit, and some in cans, but nothing to sweeten it with.” [Lucy Virginia French, journal]